Analgesia, maternal and fetal/neonatal side effects and obstetric outcome were double-blind comparison of % bupivacaine/% fentanyl versus. Analgesia, maternal and fetal/neonatal side effects and obstetric outcome were bupivacaine % plus sufentanil µg·mL−1: a study. Presented in part at the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and boluses of bupivacaine % + fentanyl 2 −1 as part of a programmed.

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When used in equipotent doses 0.

User Username Password Remember me. Fluid preloading has been shown not only to be ineffective in preventing the modest reductions in blood pressure associated with low dose epidurals, but also associated with a decrease in uterine contractions, which may last up to 1 h. These are the traditional intermittent boluses of LA, typically bupivacaine 0.

Email this article Login required. Greater lipid obstetrric theoretically means that diamorphine rapidly penetrates the cord, leaving little drug available for cephalad spread.

Epidural analgesia in labour | BJA Education | Oxford Academic

Anesth Analg ; The needle-through-needle technique may have a longer learning curve obstettric a higher incidence of technical failure compared with single-shot spinals or epidurals. No clear advantages have been demonstrated when compared with midwife administered low dose top-ups.

Sign In or Create an Account. However, it is not always associated with improved maternal satisfaction.

Epidural analgesia during labour-comparison of 0. It is conceivable that as epidural analgesia becomes more refined, the effect of the obstetric management may overshadow that of the epidural analgesia. It was concluded that continuous lumbar epidural analgesia with 8 ml of 0. Low dose top-ups are inherently safe; however a midwife should still be present. Epidurals have been credited with prolonging labour; increasing oxytocin requirements, instrumental and operative delivery rates; and causing maternal pyrexia and postpartum back pain.


However we must strive to reduce any effect on duration of labour and instrumental vaginal delivery rates by minimizing motor block through the use 0.065 low-dose LA and opioid combinations.

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Factors contributing to the outcome of labour are multiple and complex. Effect of epidural vs parenteral opioid analgesia on the progress of labour: The use of epidural analgesia does appear to have an obstefric on the instrumental delivery rate.

The meta-analysis did show more frequent use of oxytocin to augment labour in the epidural group. Various methods have been used to alleviate this pain. It is now well recognized that the only consistently effective method of pain in labour is lumbar epidural analgesia.

Various explanations have been proposed, including opioid-induced uterine hyperstimulation and placental hypoperfusion secondary to a fall in maternal blood pressure and unopposed norepinephrine secretion related to rapid onset analgesia and an ensuing rapid fall in maternal epinephrine concentrations. They do not last as long as traditional top-ups and may be inadequate for instrumental vaginal delivery.

Further research in the form of well-designed RCTs is needed. On the other hand, CSE may reduce accidental dural puncture rates. This is labour intensive for staff, provides intermittent analgesia and can cause haemodynamic instability with each bolus. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia PCEA has proved a safe and reliable technique. Combination of local anaesthetic and opioids is particularly effective. Though randomized controlled trials RCT are considered the gold standard for research, in labour they can be difficult to blind and therefore, there is potential for observer bias.


No consistent differences have been identified in neonatal arterial pH or APGAR scores in babies who are born to mothers with epidurals. In a retrospective analysis, the analgesic technique and type of delivery are reviewed following delivery. There is a obxtetric risk of damage to the neurological structures within the pelvis with longer labours, but this is difficult to quantify. In theory, LDI should decrease anaesthetic workload, provide more constant analgesia and better haemodynamic stability and sterility.

Presumably this is 00625 result of the preservation of muscle tone and the bearing down reflex. Traditionally, bupivacaine has been the most widely used LA in the UK. In practise, LDI provide adequate analgesia and cardiovascular stability but do not decrease anaesthetic workload when compared with midwife top ups as failure of analgesia requires increased anaesthetic intervention. Advances in labour analgesia.