Presents the span of control formulas created by V A Graicunas. PDF | On, Fred Nickols and others published The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of. control .. A Control Theory View of Human Behavior and Performance. Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management, particularly Theories about the optimum span of control go back to V. A. Graicunas. In he used assumptions about mental capacity and attention span to.

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These figures were tempered with considerations of the scope and scale of the work involved and for which the subordinate was responsible.

Graicunas Theory of Span of Control – Example and Formula

Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theor According to Graicunas, the number of possible interactions can be computed in the following way. Inhe published a paper called “Relationship in Organisation. Home Disclaimer Privacy Contact. Thus Graicunas cautioned any executive seeking to add a fifth directly reporting subordinate to graicnas the fact that this would add 20 new relationships for himself and nine for each of his current colleagues.

Ocntrol a particular amount is raised t For example, consider Gaurav G is a superior boss and Manoj M and Sameer S are his subordinates juniors or lower-grade employees.

Lyndall Urwick developed a theory based on geographical dispersion and the need for face to face meetings. Similarly, when the number of subordinates is 3, the number of relationships to control will be However, exercising control over activities performed by subordinates and monitoring their communication, the nodes at the upper hierarchical levels would be suffering from information overload, since all communication to other branches of the organizational structure would be routed through them.

Since a Fayol bridge is not limited to a certain functional area within the organization, but can span over functional boundaries, e. His seminal paper was first published in the March issue of The Bulletin of the International Management Institute and was reprinted in in Papers on the Science of Administration.


Meaning – What it Includes? The rationale for defining a strict hierarchy of communication channels is found in the need for vertical integration of activities, imposed by management’s need for control and information.

Span of Control: The Formulas of V. A. Graicunas

The total number of relationships would increase by 56, going from 44 to Thus, there is a possible trade-off to be made in an attempt to balance these possibly opposing tendencies. He referred to the first situation as “maximum” spsn the second as “minimum” and provided formulas for both situations. Newer Posts Older Posts Home. This requirement necessitates achieving and maintaining some balance of power.

What are Functions of Development Banks? In addition, a larger number of subordinates also requires supervisors to monitor a high number of interactions below their own level, i.

It appears natural, that no organization can afford to maintain a control structure of a dimension being required for implementing a scalar chain under the unity of command condition. Graicunas also pointed to what he saw as an error in thinking, namely, that the relationships to be managed consisted only of those between the superior and individual subordinates.

Regarding b above, it is worth noting that Dick’s relationship with Harry differs from Harry’s relationship with Dick.

The situation seems to be pretty much the same as it was traicunas Graicunas and Urwick were making their arguments. Meaning Features Steps Import Third is the pressure to reduce the costs of management overhead. And six presidents of completely independent divisions presents a simpler problem than six vice presidents of closely integrated divisions. In spite of numerous attempts since then, no convincing theories have been presented.

Graicunas Theory of Span of Control – Example and In the hierarchical business organization of some time theorry the past it was not uncommon to see average spans of 1-to-4 or even less. Dalton himself has realised the practical difficulties in the accurate measurement of socia Graicunas did in fact survive the war but was arrested by the Russians in and died cnotrol a Russian prison. The main thrust of Urwick’s article was to counter the arguments being made against limits graichnas the span of control.


Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theorist and engineer. This principle became known under the name of Fayol’s bridge. Almost two years later, that posting led to a request for those formulas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Views Read Edit View history. Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of control was overwhelming. However, in both cases, the number of relationships rises exponentially. The figures from the table cited above were for the maximum case.

Span of control

Peter Drucker refers to this principle as the span of managerial responsibility. Graicunas went on from this very simple case to create a table depicting the number of relationships for up to 12 subordinates. For 12 subordinates, the total number of relationships that might demand a superior’s attention is an astounding 24, The neoclassical theorists have developed a different solution.

Fourth is a commendable desire to shorten the chain of command. This, in turn, strengthens the co-equality of authority and responsibility. There is no hard answer.

About Me shalini chauhan. Fayol proposed that subordinate employees should be allowed to communicate directly with each other, given that their superiors had agreed upon this procedure. In the s corporate leaders flattened many organizational structures causing average spans to move closer to 1-to This page was last edited on 11 Julyat