Kvalitativní výzkum: základní teorie, metody a aplikace. Praha: Portál. Herman, J., L. (). Trauma and Recovery. The aftermath of violence – from domestic. Article (PDF Available) · January with 53 Reads. DOI: /ag . Cite this publication. Petr Vlček at Masaryk University. only examined case” (Hendl , 57). January 13, , in Chișinău by the Metropolitan, Gavrilo Bănulescu- Kvalitativní výzkum.
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Proceedings from International Kvalltativn Soil — the non Post bendl Jan views. In many regions of the world, the connection between soil and agriculture has a considerable influence on the gross domestic product and is the basic source of living for people. Even though many people are aware of this issue, there are two long contrasting phenomena – permanent growth of population of in parallel with the decreasing area of farmland. For these reasons, the pressure to increase production in the decreasing area of land will continue to grow.
In addition, it will present a number of questions, risks and problems all connected with care for the basic soil property – soil fertility. The year is named the International Year of Soils, an initiative from the UN vzkuk raise widespread understanding about the importance of soils.
Throughout history, the rise and fall of human civilizations have been closely connected to the way we treat or mistreat the living soils of our planet. The way we manage our soils plays a vital role in ensuring food security, combating climate change and supporting ecosystem functions. However, many soils are still managed unsustainably, resulting in widespread and rapid soil degradation, which puts our capacity to meet the needs of future generations at jvalitativn.
This international conference is an ideal opportunity to discuss all relevant aspects of soil as a non-renewable environmental resource and the importance jjan it both today and for the future. I am sure that you will spend a very pleasant three days in Brno and will benefit from meeting fellow scientists as well as enjoying hehdl wonderful hospitality of the South Moravian region. In the experiment fly ash was applied to the soil originated from arable land Application of mg kg-1 soil d.
Kvalitativní výzkum: základní metody a aplikace – Jan Hendl – Google Books
Application of subsequent cadmium doses 7. Investigations have shown that the applied fly ash diminished the depression in maize yielding. Increasing cadmium doses supplied to the soil mixed with ash markedly influenced the increase in this metal content in maize, whereas they decreased Zn and Pb content in the tested plant. It was demonstrated that a fly ash supplied to the soil contaminated with cadmium mitigated the effects of soil pollution with heavy metals on these metals uptake by maize.
Ashes added to the soil contaminated with cadmium influenced this metal immobilisation and therefore reduced its phytoavailability. In recent years numerous attempts have been made all over the world to utilise fly ashes, also as a raw material for zeoliths manufacturing Bukhari et al.
Due to their specific physicochemical properties, fly ashes may act as zeoliths, so it may be their asset in using these materials for heavy metals binding in soil.
Chemical composition of combustion wastes is greatly diversified depending on the kind of burnt coal, burning technology and waste storage. Cryptocristalline aggregates of various shapes and dimensions dominate in fly ashes.
Their primary components are kvalitattivn glass, quartz grains, mullit and secondary components such as; magnetite, hematite, Al-Mg spinels, pirotine, graphite, indigenous Fe, as well as monograins of the minerals, such as calcite, anhydrite, gypsum and calcium oxide Chang et al. Fly ashes contain macroelements and microelements which may be utilised for example for reclamation of municipal and industrial landfills or for fertilisation of energy crops Proceedings from International Conference Soil the kvalitativj environmental resource Page 9 Chaudhary and Ghosh, ; Kvaitativn, Beside environmentally useful components, fly ashes contain also some amount of heavy metals.
Heavy metal concentrations in the ashes obtained from hard coal burning is approximate to heavy metal content in arable soils Petit and Rucandio, ; Antonkiewicz, An important feature of the ashes is low mobility of heavy metals in these wastes because they occur in oxide or carbonate forms, i.
Fly ashes supplied to the soil, owing to their specific physicochemical properties, contribute to immobilisation of heavy metals in the substratum therefore limiting their transport to plants Gupta et al.
The investigations aimed at determining the effect of fly ash and increasing doses of cadmium applied to the soil on yielding and heavy metal uptake by maize. The static pot experiment used arable soil collected from the humus horizon.
The soil originated from Bukowno town vicinity, i. The experiment made use of fly ash originating from hard coal burning, i. The fly ash, whose chemical composition was presented in Table 1 was collected from combustion waste landfill in Owicim. The content of Cr, Cu and Ni assessed in the combustion ash was respectively over 6, 12 and fold higher in comparison with the soil content, whereas the concentrations of Zn, Pb kvalutativn Cd in soil were respectively over 2.
Considering the permissible trace metal concentrations in top horizons of arable lands, it was noted that in the analysed fly ash these contents were clearly lower Table 1Regulation, Therefore, heavy metal contents in the ash, as compared with their contents in soil should not pose any ecological hazard on the part of fly ashes.
Kvalitativní výzkum: základní metody a aplikace
Scheme of experimental The experiment comprised 9 kbalitativn differing with ash and cadmium supplement Table 2. Object 1, as the control contained only the soil, object 2 the soil with ash supplement, in objects doses of cadmium increasing from 3. The fly ash in objects was added to the soil in the amount of The experiment was conducted in four replications, in polyethylene pots contained 3.
Moreover, in the first year of the experiment cadmium was supplied to the soil once in form of water of salt solution 3 CdSO4 jann H2O.
Proceedings from International Conference Soil the non-renewable environmental resource Page 10Table 1. Mineral fertilizers were applied as kvalitatvin solutions, a week prior to the plant sowing and kvapitativn mixed with the substratum. Maize vegetation period was on average days. Sampling and plant analysis Vzkuj shoots and roots were collected from each pot replication and after drying in a dryer at 75 oC, the amount of dry mass yield was assessed in g d.
Statistical analysis Statistical computations were conducted using Microsoft Excel 7. The significance of differences between the compared means of maize yields and heavy metal contents were determined by Duncans method. The analysis of variance and Duncan test were conducted on the significance level 0.
Variation coefficients were computed pointing to the variability of the assessed elements contents in the plant yield. Maize shoots and roots yield obtained in the experiment was diversified and depended on the soil cadmium pollution level and the year of the investigations Table 2.
The experiments revealed a bigger yield of shoots as compared to roots yield.
Proceedings from International Conference Soil — the non …
The amount of the above ground parts yield, depending on the object and year of the experiment, fluctuated from Proceedings from International Conference Soil the non-renewable environmental resource Page 11Table 2.
Yield and tolerance henfl Number Doses Yield [g d. The difference in yielding between these objects for shoots was over 22 g d. Research has shown that ash supplement to the light soil object 2 contributed to a significant increase in maize shoot and root yield.
The soil with ash supplement and cadmium doses increasing from 3. A slight increase in maize yielding in the above mentioned objects might be explained firstly by a positive effect of ash on physicochemical properties of the light soil used in the experiment and secondly by diminishing of cadmium phytoavailability III degree of soil cadmium pollution, II degree of zinc pollution and I degree of lead pollution. Higher level of soil cadmium pollution from 7. A slight decline in maize yielding in the above mentioned objects was balanced by an addition of ash to the cadmium polluted soil.
Ash admixture to cadmium polluted soil affected this metal binding in non-soluble forms, unavailable to plants. The largest cadmium dose of 15 mg kg-1 soil d. The value of shoots yield to roots yield ratio was little diversified and fluctuated depending on the object and year of the experiment from 4.
Value of this ratio points to the stability of the tested plant yielding in diversified soil conditions. The experiment demonstrated that maize shoots and roots yield in the third year of vegetation was the largest in comparison with the first year.
Obtaining a bigger maize yield in the third year after cadmium and ash application to the soil was due an improvement of the soil physicochemical properties, decreased cadmium solubility and therefore diminished phytoavailability of this metal. Due to its sorptive properties, the ash affected a diminishing of this metal availability, and therefore influenced increase in maize yield. Tolerance index TI Maize sensitivity to cadmium and role of fly ash in heavy metal ion immobilisation process in soil was assessed in the paper.
The sensitivity was determined on the basis of tolerance index TIwhich was estimated as the ratio of the yield obtained in polluted objects objects and the yield generated in the control object 1 Table 2.
Tolerance index TI has been regarded recently as the best reliable index for determining compounds toxic for plants in soil Audet and Charest, Tolerance index may assume values TI1. If the index is lower than one, it indicates an inhibition of plant growth and sometimes their total dieback, equal to one shows no influence of pollution on yielding, while higher than 1 indicates a positive effect of pollution on plant growth and development.
Tolerance index calculated for maize in Authors own research Table 2 assumed values higher than 1 in objectswhere ash and cadmium were applied to the soil in dose mg kg-1 soil d. The index value below 1 was noted in the objects where cadmium doses between 7.
Presented investigations show that TI value was determined by cadmium dose objects and ash object 9. The experiments have revealed that fly ash supplied to the soil polluted with heavy metals objects affected an improvement in yielding in comparison with the control. It was demonstrated that an admixture of fly ash supplied to the cadmium polluted soil softened the results of soil pollution with heavy metals, as evidenced by maize crop yield.
Cd, Zn and Pb content in maize Chemical composition of plants usually reflects the conditions of minerals balancing in soil and in the first place in the soil solution. Presented experiment focused on three elements: Selection of the elements was justified by the soil pollution with these elements whereas cadmium was implemented additionally.
The paper presents heavy Proceedings from International Conference Soil the non-renewable environmental resource Page 13metal contents kvalitatvn maize shoots and roots as a mean weighted average vskum three years of the experiment Figure 1. Content of Cd, Zn and Pb in maize above ground parts and roots as a mean weighted average for three years of the experiment; Objects: Increase in cadmium content, at the highest level of soil pollution object 8in maize aboveground parts and roots was respectively over 22 and 3-fold higher in comparison with the control.
It results from the research that irrespective of the object, higher cadmium concentrations were registered in maize roots than in shoots. Using translocation coefficient TC mobility of the tested metals in plant was determined. The parameter expresses the ratio of metal Proceedings from International Conference Soil the non-renewable environmental resource Page 14concentration in shoots to its concentration in roots Park et al.
Relationships between Cd in shoots and roots were presented in Figure 2. The lowest values of the coefficient were registered in the plants growing in the objects without cadmium admixture objects 1 and 2. In the other objects values of translocation coefficient fluctuated from 0.
Stability of this coefficient is interesting in objectswhere its values ranged 0. Despite growing dose of applied cadmium mg Cd kg-1soil d. Translocation coefficient of Cd, Zn and Pb by maize; Objects: The fact suggests that ash supplement to the soil did not have any marked influence on cadmium uptake by plants.
Proceedings from International Conference Soil the non-renewable environmental resource Page 15However, the question remains how to explain it. Maybe the answer lies in cadmium phytoavailability. Another studied index which might be connected with cadmium uptake was zinc concentrations in maize Figure 1. Irrespective of the object, higher zinc content was noted in maize roots than in its aboveground parts.
Relationships between zinc concentrations in the aboveground parts and roots were determined by hrndl of translocation coefficient TC Figure 2.