MACKINDER THEORY OF HEARTLAND PDF

It is battle between land power and sea power which is going to lead the world continents by one. What is Heartland theory? This theory explains,greatest wealth. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers. The final tradition informing geopolitical thought in Russia today is the celebrated “Heartland” theory of the British geographer and statesman. Halford Mackinder.

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He divided Europe into east and west by a line joining the Adriatic to the Baltic. The reason for this difference is that Mackinder’s model is primarily geo-strategic, while Kitsikis’ model is geo-civilizational. This page was last updated on September 26, China needed to first emerge as the largest economy in Asia-Europe, before it eventually surpasses the United States as the global superpower, fulfilling what Mackinder stated: The Heartland Theory is seen by critics as impractical in a modern perspective.

One major drawback of this theory is its inability to make allowances for the technological advances. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This article has multiple issues. This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers with the ultimate victory going to the continental power.

The other landmasses would follow later. Halford John Mackinderthe author. Only countries in Eastern Europe were seen as potential candidates of launching a successful invasion in the Heartland.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. The Heartland’s size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island.

The Geographical Pivot of History

Mackinder gave this theory in Mackinder died on March 6th,aged 86 years. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

Views Read Edit View history. There is a significant geographical overlap between the Heartland or “Pivot Area” and the Intermediate Region, with the exception of Germany – Prussia and north-eastern Chinawhich Kitsikis excludes from the Intermediate Region. Mackinder believed that countries heatland other world regions the offshore islands and the outlying islands were hindered from making a successful invasion in the Heartland by mackinnder geographical barriers surrounding the Heartland the Carpathian Mountains to the west, the Hindukush Ranges to the South, and the Altai to the east and the Baltic Sea to the north.

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According mackinfer this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa comprising seven- eighth of total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world. This assertion was also supported by Kjellen. Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland by a single power had been unattainable in the past because:.

This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers. Countries of Eastern Europe enjoy proximity to the Heartland and therefore are in literally the best position to take advantage of its resources. This question may seem pointless, since in the Russian Empire had ruled most of the area from the Volga to Eastern Siberia for centuries.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. The vital question was how to secure control for the Heartland. This concept is an analysis of the political pattern of the world and includes predictions based on this analysis. Meaning and Its Structure. Volga, Oxus, Jaxartes or into the icy sea e.

Signs of Mackinder’s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his ” Intermediate Region ” model. The outlying islands were made up of the Americas as well as Australia.

This dividing line was also a zone of struggle between the Teutonic Germany and the Slavs Russia with no established balance of power. Also, China later went on to join the communist sphere, while the Saudi Arabia-Sahara barrier could not prevent the Cold War from spilling over into Africa.

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What is the Heartland Theory?

The theory was formulated at the end of the railway age. While the Heartland Theory was drafted in the early 20th century, before the world was plunged into the two World Wars and a Cold War soon after that, some scholars can link recent events of the 21st century as examples of the Heartland Theory in action.

It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had the Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by the Carpathian mountains; in the north-west were the Baltic Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean.

His map Mercator projection of the world enclosed within an ellipse exaggerated the extent of the Arctic Ocean.

What is the Heartland Theory? –

The Heartland or pivot area could have become the focus of power if either Russia had united with Germany or Russia had been overthrown by China and Japan. Articles lacking in-text citations from January All articles lacking in-text citations Articles that may contain original research from November Articles with multiple maintenance issues Pages to import images to Wikidata Use dmy dates from February Mackinder called it the Heartland total area being 11 million square kilometres. World-Island was also the richest of the three world regions in resources.

Mackinder wrote down the theory in the turn of the 20th century, a period when modern technological advancements were still in their infancy.